Historically called Deliverables because these items were handed / presented, and “delivered” to the client at a milestone in a project..

Depending on the type of project you have and how far you want to go, there are many different types of deliverables that can be created for different purposes.

As you scoll down you will see a range that occur at different points in the project and use different technologies. Forward from here we can put together a phased workplan to bring your idea to life including the correct deliverables for your needs.J



FDM – This is a lower resolution FDM print, you can see the orange is course, but it is good for initial prototypes. This is very fast and very inexpensive and is useful to iterate while designing.
In use: The lower resolution FDM prints are still functional, just not as accurate or pretty as other processes. They give you a certain amount of info


SLA – This is the back of a wrist watch I designed, here this 3d print is a high resolution with an SLA process, the material here is of a high quality and accuracy. This prototype came from a supplier in Chicago and took a couple of days turn around from a CAD file.
SLS – These are Yakima bike rack prototypes, the Black ones are painted items with ABS like properties from the SLA process, the white ones are unpainted. They are advanced in material properties and can be used for testing. they have high engineering parameters, strong, durable etc.


SOFT TOOLING IM – The black knife handle is from a soft tooled mould on an injection machine, its very far down in the development process and represents a near final intent. To get to this level, it is expensive.


Machining – This s a small batch metal prototype, this again was a wrist watch and these were $200-$300 each. Good if you need to use real materials to evaluate a design, these can be made in small quantities and don’t need an investment in tooling.


Fabrication -This is a wood / mdf prototype, I have not made one of these in a while, but in cases where you need a larger structure, wood can be a good option to consider. Here it’s supporting a computer and screen.


This is a cosmetic model, a prototype created full size but limited in functionality. Often these will be used for consumer research, where you want it to look real in order to gain peoples real opinions. The one above was about $3000


Canvas Proof of Concept

Level 1: Initial prototyping with canvas (lower in the image) to establish basic design parameters and test material folds.
Level 1 : Test prototype made from canvas and lower spec materials

Final Prototype

Ideation Sketches

Level 1 Sketch – good for fast concept generation, often used early in the development process. Great for fast idea generation.

Level 2 Sketch – a little more refined and thought through. Good for applying a little more thought to selected idea generation.
Level 2 Concept Sketch

Sketch Renders


CAD Screen Captures

Level 1 CAD Shading –
I use images like this to communicate design within CAD development stages. The basic shading can indicate dimensionality and form.
Level 1 CAD Shading –

CAD Renders

Level 2 CAD Rendering –
not terribly realistic, used mainly for communication purposes, shows functionality and hints at surface finish. These might be used mid project.
Level 3 CAD rendering
Typically used for presentations.
These can be time intensive to get near photography quality.
Level 3 CAD rendering
Typically used for presentations.
These can be time intensive to get near photography quality.
Level 3 CAD Rendering
Depth of field and realistic materials can be shown.
Level 3 CAD Rendering
with call outs

Tech Packs

Tech Pack – Often used in apparel or softgoods when communicating to external suppliers.
Tech Pack / Color CAD

CMF Variations

3d Color Variation , created to present a range of options.
2D Colour variations / Design Options

Specification Drawings

Hard Goods Specification Drawing
2D Design Options